Thursday, April 26, 2007

Change the engine oil in scooter

Autor:Artem Petrov
Translated by "Google Translate".

The procedure for the replacement of oil a simple and takes about 10 minutes. Still, I decided to write a short article on this topic.

When to change?
The first time, after 500 kilometres, then every 1000. Just you replace butter after taking cylinder: replacement cylinder lifting cylinder head, etc., as in these works, even if everything was done accurately, it is likely dirt and particles of metal in the engine.

Substitute oils needed to be held with hot motore because oil is becoming more fluid and mud if it is, comes from the bottom crankcase mixed with butter. Scooter should stand in the central step.

Conduct works:
1) Remove probe-alias cork filler neck, is on the right side of the engine, near the generator.

2) Substitute the shell hole size (about 1 liter) for the discharge of waste oil and remove simple cork (twist off counter-clockwise).

To loosen the only head, or you may damage the simple cork, which is made from aluminium. The plugs are spring and oil-filter grid.

3) Wait until oil flows from the engine.
4)Wash cork discharge openings and filter in gasoline.
5) SPIN and prolong cork discharge openings. Do not install strong effort, remember that the cork and crankcase engine constructed of aluminium. The annex strong effort can be damaged threads.
6) Pour in the motor through filler cap 800 ml of engine oil, using a suitable bowl.
7) SPIN the filler neck.

All ready.

Friday, April 20, 2007

Carburetor. The theory work

Perhaps of any other details of the car is not placed as any kind of "fairy tales and stories about carburetors". Engines simply mixing fuel and air and control of fuel ratio coming into the engine at any time during the work. However, the manner in which this is done can be complex, especially in cars with the control of the composition of exhaust gases. Worth a bit to learn about the fundamentals of the supercar. Despite the perception, Engines do not suck fuel from the carburetor. All are fitted diffuser, which is a narrowing of the air holes supercar. When air passes through the narrow, it is recession pressure (vacuum). A small hole located at the site for the fuel. The atmospheric pressure acting on fuel squeezes it from the fuel cell reaches through the hole in the opening carburetor where fuel into intake manifold, and then in the engine cylinders. Engine requires fuel-air mixture variation in the composition of the different modes of its work when it cold, preheated working with the engine idling, in the area of medium speed and under heavy load. In carburetor several systems, which help it to work under different conditions. In addition to the systems described further, there are some details, such as the curve, to cut off the flow of fuel and crash jumps pressure, which are used for special applications. These hubs have been established for a variety of reasons, and their withdrawal could have a significant impact on the work of the engine.

Floating camera
The float supports constant level of fuel in fuel cell supercar. It works as follows. When the fuel level drops, the float falls, a needle valve and allows fuel to the floating camera. By maintaining the level of fuel in a ratio of the air/fuel ratio is kept more accurately. The performance level of float should be adjusted according to the manufacturer.

Air duct
The air dampers to create cold engine through enrichment fuel ratio. Air flap over air in the air and, consequently, the engine is more fuel, and the turnover idling reduced. Therefore, to control the throttle valves added the increase idle speed to raise the progreve engine. For the average car there is no need to change this system.

The idling
The idling supplies fuel to the engine at low speeds, where the main measuring system is not working. Levelling screws to change the ratio of the air/fuel in the engine idling (many cars to the control of the exhaust gas adjustment screws sealed plugs). Many mechanics believe that the regulation revises composition of the mixture for the entire range of speeds, but it is not.

LEP pump
LEP pump provides injection of additional fuel with a sharp opening the throttle valves to prevent the stoppage of the engine and interruptions in his work during a car. Looking inside neck agent and quickly moved traction control throttle valves, fuel injected to the exits accelerating pump.

Transition system
Transition system provides transitional regime between the engine and the work of the dispensing system. Many engines are channels or holes transitional next to the throttle plates dampers, which served to fuel their doors during the throttle opening, dampers.

The measuring system
The measuring system doziruet fuel to the engine when driving a car in the middle faster. It consists of the main fuel burnt, the main distributor and diffuser. The fuel jikler located in the channel between the fuel cell agent and the principal dispenser. The dispenser typically consists of pipes with small holes in the air. The atmosphere here is mixed with the fuel to form a pulverized fuel air "fog." The fuel jikler determines how much fuel will be mixed with a specified amount of air. Engineers use tuners main fuel jets of various sizes to calibrate carburetor with the engine under different conditions of work. By using distance larger enriched mixture. By contrast, the installation went smaller drain mixture. Engine operating at high altitudes, to be connected with smaller size compared with the same engine, but working at sea level.

Engine need a rich fuel air mixture when operating under load than when he just worked in the cruise mode. Efficiencies system supplies additional fuel when the engine is running under load, and with full throttle opening flaps. The various brands of carburettors used different types of Efficiencies. The most common are econometers diaphragm type calibration rods, baipasnye jets or valve Efficiencies. Econometers orifice mounted on HOLLEY engines, and some engines FORD MOTORCRAFT. When the vacuum in the intake manifold pressure reaches a certain level, the valve opens, allowing additional fuel to the engine. Some models have two valves to ensure more accurate dosing. Efficiencies ball matches, according to the value of opening pressure, as measured in millimeters Hg. Art. In accordance with the regime may extracted valve Efficiencies. Engines are usually given a low vacuum should be equipped with econometers, offered for small values of the vacuum. Dosing rods moved inwards and outwards in size holes (usually in the main fuel jiklerh), in accordance with the vacuum intake manifold. When the engine is under load and the vacuum is reduced, the rods made of the fuel burnt to increase the fuel supply. Bypass jets Efficiencies have the same functions as surgical rods, except that they have their own jikler or valve Efficiencies. In view of all the foregoing, it becomes clear that housing is very important for the engine. When the engine of a small volume of air with great diffuser, the required vacuum and spraying fuel available only in the "top" speed range, if not met. Power reaction to the movement of the throttle valves, and the overall performance of the engine will be impaired. It is possible that the air is too small. The engine may work well at low and medium speed, but little flow and diffuzora pinholes reduce power at high speeds.

Monday, April 16, 2007

Automotive Training For Do-it-yourselfers

By Andy West

Automotive training used to be a more common part of our society. Shop class was a commonly offered elective in high schools nationwide, ensuring that most boys knew their way around a car's engine bay. Additionally, cars relied more on mechanical principles, rather than computerized systems. As a result, when a car broke down, the owner was much more likely to know how to fix it themselves, or at least have a friend or a family member who could fix it for them.

The situation has changed dramatically over the years. Today's cars are much more complex, and their owners are much less likely to have had any automotive training. As a result, dealerships and garages are repairing a higher percentage of cars than ever before, and mechanics' rates have risen in accordance with the increased necessity of their services.

Those who dislike the situation have another option. With a little automotive training, most people can perform more of the routine maintenance on their cars, reducing the expenses associated with car maintenance and allowing them the satisfaction of a job well done.

An oil change is an example of routine maintenance that frequently costs car owners far more than they need to spend. An oil change is a fairly simple procedure in most cars, requiring only enough automotive training for the individual to know the location of the oil filter and drain plug. A basic car care class should teach car owners how to locate major components under the hood and perform simple maintenance tasks, as well as imparting valuable tips for beginning do-it-yourselfers. For example, a good introductory class should warn students to beware of screwing a bolt or screw in crooked, known as crossing the threads.

A basic tune up is another routine maintenance task that do-it-yourselfers should be able to handle with a little automotive training. A basic tune up usually consists of changing the air filter, spark plugs, plug wires, distributor cap and rotor, and positive crankcase valve (PCV). Depending on the car and the mileage recommendations on the components, a basic tune up can also include replacing the fuel filter and/or the oxygen sensor. Rubber parts, such as drive belts and radiator hoses, may also be checked and replaced during a tune up. On most cars, these parts are easily accessed and require only a basic understanding of automotive functions.

A do-it-yourselfer who has had basic automotive training can also replace his or her own brakes. Changing the brake pads on a car is typically a dirty but simple job, requiring only a basic understanding of the braking components on a car. Additionally, there are numerous routine maintenance and repair jobs that an intermediate level amateur mechanic can usually handle on his or her own, such as replacing a battery, alternator, starter, timing belt, and many other components.

Of course, a significant advantage of having automotive training is that dealerships and garages cannot take advantage of you by recommending maintenance that may not actually need to be done. A basic understanding of auto mechanics will enable you to intelligently discuss any problems with your mechanic, understand what he or she is talking about, and recognize when his or her recommendations are exaggerated or downright unnecessary.

Obviously, knowing the basics of how a car operates can be extremely beneficial, saving you money in more ways than one. Beginning automotive training classes are usually offered at your local auto tech school or community college. Whether you intend to venture a few repairs on your own, or you simply want to be able to hold your own with your mechanic, taking a car care class ensures that you will not be a victim of your own ignorance.

Thursday, April 12, 2007

Automotive Painting

By Christopher Johnson

A car with an excellent paint job is one of life's true joys. It's like being the kid with the best bike in the neighbourhood or the biggest piece of birthday cake. Whether you drive a '47 Eldorado, a '66 Beetle or an '07 fortwo, a great paint job will take your vehicle from ho-hum to headturner.

Actually creating a great automotive paint job takes skill and finesse. Automotive painting is one of the most arduous and painstaking tasks in crafting an automobile. It can also be one of the most costly. If you are on a budget, there are options for you. Some paint shops can deliver a good paint job for a fair price. Your other option is to take on the task yourself. If the paint job is a success, you'll have even more to brag about: a hot set of wheels AND a "do it yourself" tale to tell.

Achieving a great paint job is a step-by-step process. You simply can't rush automotive painting. Follow the basic steps of preparation, primer application, blocking, final paint coat and detail application. This can seem like a daunting task for any beginner, but the entire job can be completed in just a few days.

Before you begin, check with local bylaws and regulations regarding the use of spray paint in homes and enclosed areas. The last thing you need is a legal holdup delaying your painting job.

Cleaning the car is your next crucial step. The car must be spotlessly clean and free of dirt. Use detergents to clean the car top to bottom, and then follow up with grease removers. After the car has been cleaned, it's time to begin sanding. An air sander (preferably a dual-action sander) should be used to remove the old paint from the car. This kind of sander will not cause body damage because it removes paint without digging like other sanders and grinders. Every trace of paint must be removed to create a perfect palette for your new paint job. Automotive detailing tape or even duct tape can be used to cover and protect other parts of the car, including plastic moldings and windows. In addition to removing the old paint, all traces of rust have to be sanded off. Rust will spread if ignored or untreated, and the last thing you want is body rot happening beneath your spiffy new paint. You can repair minor body flaws on the car's surface using fillers. Shape the compound with care using a sanding board, then follow up with a glazing compound. This step will help to ensure a smooth-as-glass finish on your ride.

After the whole car has been initially cleaned, then sanded, a final cleaning takes place and the vehicle is ready to be masked. In this step, every part of the car that shouldn't be touched by paint is covered and protected. Remember, you will be using high-grade automotive paint that doesn't wash off with water. Cover your windows, every light and reflector, all window rubbers, all chrome, tires, wheels, door handles, wipers.. take a good look and what needs to be masked. If you don't want even the tiniest bit of over spray on it, cover it up! The tools and materials needed for masking are available at automotive supply warehouses and hardware stores.

Priming is an essential step to providing a good foundation for your new paint. A flawless prime coat will help you to achieve a perfect paint job. Valspar epoxy is a good primer choice, combining dependable filling capabilities with minimal shrinking. After the primer has been applied, a second coat in a contrasting colour should be applied on top of the first layer. This will serve as a sanding guide. The primer should be sanded to a smooth finish, but don't sand too vigorously or you could actually damage the body of the car. When the priming is complete, a sealer is applied and a final sanding takes place.

Finishing off
In finishing off the automotive painting, it is essential to achieve uniform colour. The spray gun should be held ten to twelve inches away from the body to avoid streaks and runs. This is necessary when applying the basecoat, final coat and clear coat.

Regardless of the type of car you drive, a new paint job can turn it into a real showstopper. Automotive painting can be a time consuming task, but you can do it if you take it step by step. The creative energy will be good for your soul, and the compliments you receive will be great for your confidence.

Friday, April 06, 2007

3 Quick Auto Repair Tips

By James C.

Maintaining your car is a very important job. A well maintained car will last longer, perform better and get better gas mileage. Learn some quick tips to help you easily maintain your car.

1. Change the oil every 3000 miles or 3 months. This is the most important thing you can do to protect your car. If you cannot change it that often have your mechanic change your oil with synthetic oil. It lasts much longer and will allow you to go longer between oil changes.

2. Have your brakes checked as soon as they begin to squeal. If you replace them as soon as they become worn you will save your vehicle any further damage. If brake pads wear down too much they can damage your rotors or drums.

3. When your radiator reservoir becomes low add premixed antifreeze. You can now buy antifreeze premixed to the correct 50/50 ratio. It might seem like you are wasting money by paying for water but it will save you time and ensure that your vehicle receives the correct ratio of antifreeze to water. The right balance is important to protect your engine and provide proper cooling.

That's it for now. Remember a well maintained car will save you money in countless ways so take the time to take care of your car.

Tuesday, April 03, 2007

Car GPS Navigation Systems - A Buyers Guide

By Nicola Carr

SUMMARY: GPS navigation systems are advancing every year to include added features such as traffic and weather reporting and integrated multimedia players such as mp3, dvd movies, games etc. This buying guide outlines the core features of gps navigation systems and how to compare them.

In 1973 the U.S. Department of Defence launched the Navstar GPS network. This consisted of 24 satellites orbiting the earth every 12 hours and five ground stations. This positioning system was made available for public use. With this capability, consumer location devices were produced to accurately determine location and other data such as current and average speed, directional heading, and elevation. These GPS devices need an unobstructed view of at least four satellites to provide a reliable 3D fix.

The GPS receiver overlays this location data onto map files stored on the unit, to give a current position on the map as well previous track. The receiver constantly recalculates position, giving real time position.

A typical GPS device contains:

  • 12-channel receiver - the quality of the receiver determines how long it takes the device to acquire a 3D fix.
  • Antenna to capture satellite signals - positioned to get a clear view of the sky.
  • CPU to process the data and overlay on maps
  • DVD Hard-drive - where maps on DVD's or available online are uploaded and stored. Some cheaper units do not upload the maps, but reference them off the DVD or CD.
  • Display Screen - mostly color with handheld units using black and white
  • Voice Interface - more advanced units
How The GPS Device Gets A Fix

The first time you start your GPS device, its data store is blank so needs a to collect satellite information to determine your position. This is known as a cold start. Some units only take 30 to 45 seconds to acquire a 3D fix during a cold start, while others can take several minutes. Subsequent position updates only take 3 to 4 seconds. If you go out of range from losing line of sight, such as passing behind a large building or through a tunnel, a good receiver will instantly recover, whereas weaker units will require more time to reacquire a 3D fix.

How Different GPS Navigation Units Differ

Location of Antenna - A factory installed in-dash unit antenna is integrated into the dashboard where it has an unobstructed view of the sky. Many portable models have a suction-cup-mounting device to position the device on the windshield. Add-on antennas are also available. Regardless of the type of unit and antenna, the important thing is to keep the antenna visible to the greatest area of sky possible. Choose a unit where this can be done AT THE SAME TIME as being able to maintain a clear view of the screen.

Screens and Display - important to check how bright these are, and if they are clearly visible from the mounted position in bright day light. Onboard navigation systems are generally color screens, and portable units are black and white to save power. Larger screens and integrate better with other vehicle electronics.

Input Buttons - most enroute buttons are on the display screen. Ensure these are easy to use when driving; that is they are big enough and colored sufficently to see without causing a driving hazard.

Map Media - Earlier models were CD-based, requiring multiple discs to cover the entire United States. Newer in-dash systems are DVD-based; only 1-2 DVD's required for an entire country of maps.

Cost - In-dash systems are usually more expensive than portable counterparts. Aftermarket in-dash models usually require professional installation and can be just as expensive as the factory models.

Upgrading - always check how easy it is to upgrade the firmware and maps on your GPS unit. Some units detach a portion to be connected to the computer via USB, whereas others are done using a DVD. Those units which can be upgraded online, are much more convenient.

Added Features of GPS Units

Apart from giving you a current position, a number of GPS navigation devices can give you:

  • A track of where you have been - the number of tracks and waypoints stored varies from unit to unit. You may also want to save on part of a track for future use.
  • A path from your current position to your destination
  • Maintain commonly used navigation paths for reuse.
  • Points of Interest - user sets the types of points of interest, such as tourist, bank ATM, petrol stations, historical, accommodation, restaurants etc.
  • Real time traffic reporting to avoid traffic delays. This can also include road works.
  • Voice recognition to receive destination instructions, and voice guidance to give driving instructions
  • Weather updates
  • Street name navigation - instead of just turn left 200m it was say 'Turn left into Stanley St'
  • Integrated Multimedia players - MP3 players, image viewers, and audio books.
  • Onboard or Portable GPS Navigation
The downside of onboard GPS Navigation units are susceptible to theft; and you cannot take them with you to use in other vehicles or when travelling abroad. Portable units, such as the Garmin StreetPilot 2720, can be used in multiple cars; being easily moved from car to car. Depending upon the power supply and portability, portable and handheld units can be taken when travelling or used on cycles, boats, private aircraft etc.